WE NEED TO PARTNER TO HELP

 

Ointment of Jesus, Healing, Aloes, Frankincense, Myrrh, God’s recipe for health

Home

Table of Content 

 Video

Contact

Research Papers

Chapter 3

Got Milk?

 

Dr. Bill McAnalley, Ph.D.

 

A very important book that contains the necessary information to make the point regarding the relationship of human breast milk and the gel of the aloe plant is a collection of scientific studies done over the last 30 years and edited by Bill McAnalley, Ph.D.   Dr. Bill is a pharmacologist / toxicologist  from the University of Texas.  He is responsible for the initial development of making the inner leaf gel of the Barbadensis Miller aloe plant into an off-white concentrated powder that is a hundred times richer in essential nutrients than what we find in nature.  "The Science Behind Aloe" is a consolidation of many scientific studies done at various universities by the leadings scientist  in the field of glycobiology.

 

The following is my email request for permission to reprint Chapters of this marvelous work:

 

On Nov 15, 2012, at 10:51 AM, John Miltgen <john.miltgen@yahoo.com> wrote:

Hello Dr Bill,

We have talked in the past and I'm a state-side helper to Professor Mary VanderWal, MSN, FNP and her HIV orphan project.  Mary is doing very well and making progress with the missionary group SIM.  Recently she was named the SIM Medical Coordinator for Ethiopia and she is still working on her Ph.D. at Michigan State University. 

Because of my involvement and interactions with Mary, I have started to write a book about the use of aloe from a biblical standpoint.  My focus is an ancient restoration remedy found prior to the Conference of Nicea in 325 AD and called the ‘Ointment of Jesus.  It's from a Jewish prospective and based on the Gospel of John 19:39.  Chapters 7 & 8 of "The Science Behind Aloe" contains the necessary information I need to make a critical point about the relationship between human breast milk, aloe and the restoration of man.  I seek your permission to use the information contained in these chapters. 

Dear John:

You have my permission to use my book to help make your case.

Bill McAnalley 

bill@mcanalleyassociates.com

Office 800-755-0044

 

For a copy of this book visit

www.mcanalleyassociates.com



------

Chapter 7

 

 

Breast Milk: Structural and Functional Prototype for Acemannan

 

Abstract:

In normal conditions human breast milk is the model for nutritional requirements. I It is able to provide all the necessary nutritional ingredients like proteins, lipids, carbo­hydrates, etc. In some countries children depend on breast milk as their sole source of nutrition until the age of 3 or 4.2 After all, it is the ideal composition designed by nature to furnish all the necessary components in order for the body to develop and grow optimally.3, 4 Apart from the other important nutrients, breast milk provides lac­tose, over 130 beta-linked oligosaccharides and significant amounts of free mannose. The specific enzyme, lactase, breaks down lactose in order to provide a constant source of energy. Oligosaccharides are able to provide free monosaccharides, feed friendly bacteria (i.e. probiotics), and provide 70% of the energy requirement for the colon. These oligo saccharides also provide N-acetylneuraminic acid (i.e. a sialic acid), which is responsible for optimal brain structural and functional development.5 Lastly, free mannose builds the structurally and functionally correct N-glycoproteins required for optimal health. This is why breast-fed infants demonstrate better overall health and development in comparison to formula-fed infants.

Nutrients Found in Human Milk:

Mature milk contains necessary nutrients such as proteins, lipids,6-8 and carbohy­drates, along with other needed components like vitamins, minerals, and enzymes that aid in digestion and absorption of these nutrients.9-11 Some of the proteins found in breast milk, for example, colostrum and lactoferrin, play important roles in the immune system of infants.12 Furthermore, the concentrations of these components vary specifically to meet the infant's changing needs.13

Table 8: Nutrients Found in Breast Milk 8-12

 

Components

 

Lactose          (more than)

Protein

Oligosaccharides

Lipids

Monosaccharides

Minerals

Vitamins

Percentage

 

5.0

5.0

2.0

0.9

0.2

0.2

0.2

 

 

Importance of Lactose:

 

The percentages of carbohydrates in milk like lactose, oligosaccharides and free monosaccharides vary between species. The percentage of total carbohydrates in human milk ranges from 6.5 to 7.5%, while the average carbohydrate percentage in cow's and goat's milk is less than 5%. Lactose is the major component in human breast milk. It is a disaccharide consisting of one molecule of glucose and one mole­cule of galactose linked through a beta-bond, and can only be broken down by the specific enzyme, lactase. Lactase is the only enzyme made by humans that can break beta bonds, and is produced by cells that line the small intestine.14 Furthermore, lac­tase can only break the beta bond found in lactose, and cannot break other beta bonds.

 

The ability to produce lactase past the breast-feeding age is mainly limited to peoples of European and Middle-eastern decent, while peoples of East Asia, Latin America, and Africa are unable to do so. This was caused by a mutation that allows the lactase-producing cells to continue lactase production throughout life. However, breast feeding in infancy and eating the proper foods thereafter can allow the growth and colonization of beneficial bacteria like Lactobacillus acidophilus in the intestine.15 These probiotics are able to produce the lactase enzyme that breaks down lactose into its monosaccharide components.

 

One of the important functions of lactose lies in its ability to provide a constant source of energy (i.e. glucose) through the regulated digestion by lactase. This means that energy is limited by the amount of lactase present in the infant. Gradual lactose digestion produces energy in a regulated and consistent fashion without causing glu­cose spikes, which have been implicated in ingestion of dextrose and sucrose.

 

Importance of Oliagosaccharides in Human Milk:

As previously mentioned, there are differences in milk composition between species, and this applies to the content of oligosaccharides as well.16, 17 For example, cow's milk contains very small amounts of oligosaccharides. In contrast, human milk con­tains significant amounts of beta-linked oligosaccharides, called human milk oligo­saccharides (HMOs). These oligosaccharides contain monosaccharides like fucose, glucosamine, and sialic acid. IS Most of these oligosaccharides found in human breast milk are not found in cow's milk or in formula milk. Studies demonstrate that the amount of oligosaccharides in breast-fed infants is much higher than formula-fed infants. 19 Evidence suggests that HMOs not only provide energy to probiotics and the colon, but also serve as a major source of principal monosaccharides, such as sialic acid.

 

Sialic acid may be a conditionally essential nutrient in infancy, if de­mand outstrips the rate of endogenous synthesis. 19

 

Neuraminidases, produced by probiotics, are able to break down sialic acid containing HMOs to release the sialic acid monosaccharides. After it is broken down, about 90% of the free sialic acid is then transferred across the intestine where it is used by the body for brain development and glycoprotein formation. The same results are obtained from oral and intravenous (IV) administration of free sialic acid. Exogenous sialic acid is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier and being taken up by various tissues. The findings suggest that dietary sources of sialic acid may contribute to early brain development in newborn mammals.5 Oral sialic acid is now considered an essential nutrient for infants. 19 This new understanding also has impor­tant implications for the development of formulas consumed by newborns, and espe­cially pre-term infants. 19, 20

 

There is overwhelming evidence of the importance of sialic acid in various aspects of early development. Several studies on the effect of breast-feeding suggest that hu­man milk contains the highest levels of sialic acid for infants during the period of greatest brain development.

 

Table 9

Studies Demonstrating the Effects of Breast Feeding on

Neurological Development

                                         

Study Results

 

Breast-fed children score higher on intelligence tests than formula-fed children

 

 

Intelligence test scores correlated with the time-period of breast-feeding. (i.e. Longer time = Higher score)

 

Breast-fed pre-term children had an 8-point advantage over formula-fed pre-term infants\

 

Breast feeding is associated with small but detectable increase in cognitive ability in 8-18 year olds

 

Direct correlation between duration of breast feeding and higher scores on the Wechsler adult intelligence test

Reference

 

23, 24, 25

 

 

26

 

 

25

 

 

27

 

 

22

 

The results support the fact that greater levels of sialic acid incorporation at an early age have a direct and positive effect on IQ and cogni­tive ability in children throughout their lifetime. Table 9 lists the findings of just a few of these studies.21, 22 The requirement for sialic acid continues through adult­hood. This is evident in various neurological disorders, like schizophrenia and Alz­heimer's, which demonstrate low levels of sialic acid in neuronal glycoproteins and cerebral spinal fluid.19

 

In addition, ingested sialic acid and sialic acid-containing HMOs also work to pre­vent and combat diseases such as enteric disease, otitis media, and respiratory infec­tions, as well as other diseases through a purely structural and functional effect. 19, 28 These saccharides prevent these diseases and these infections by acting as binding sites for bacteria and viruses.19 Pathogenic bacteria and viruses normally bind to glycoproteins in order to infect cells.29-31 In essence, when the binding sites of viruses and bacteria are occupied by HMOs, they are inactive and thus unable to cause infection.

 

Importance of Mannose in Human Milk:

 

Even prior to birth, the importance of mannose is demonstrated by its significant up­take from the mother's blood through the umbilical cord.32, 33 After birth, mannose is found in the milk of all mammals at significant concentrations, demonstrating its die­tary importance.34 The importance of mannose is further illustrated by the fact that the intestine has specific pumps designed to move mannose from the intestine into the blood. This is contrary to the current theoretical belief that all mannose is pro­duced from glucose in the liver.35 Cavalli et ai, established that human breast milk contains a significant concentration of free mannose, which can serve as the main source of mannose for infants.

Other sources of mannose can be derived from the breakdown of mannose-containing polysaccharides by colonic bacteria and absorbed by pinocytosis.34, 36 Thus, oligosac­charides appear to serve as a time-release source of mannose. Studies have shown that less than 5% of oligosaccharides found in breast milk are absorbed. This has led scientists to believe that breast milk could not be a major source of mannose for in­fants. However, there is evidence to suggest that even with I % absorption a suffi­cient amount of mannose will be present to build the glycoproteins and glycolipids required for healthy cells.37, 38

Summary:

Human breast milk is able to provide all the nutrition that is needed to promote the proper growth and development of infants. Human milk contains the proteins, lipids, and most importantly, the saccharides, which are important for the proper development of cells and their ability to communicate with one another. There are three important saccharide components: lactose, HMOs, and free mannose. Lactose, through its breakdown by lactase, provides a steady and regulated source of energy. HMOs are beta-linked saccharides that are not digested by lactase, serve to provide energy to probiotics and colon cells and provide important monosaccharides needed for proper development. Mannose is nutritionally important before and after birth. The mother's blood provides mannose pre-term. After birth, the mother's milk pro­vides enough mannose to supply all the infant's needs.

 

References

 

1.             Haug A, Hostmark AT, Harstad OM. Bovine milk in human nutrition--a review. Lipids Health Dis.

2007;6:25.

2.             Prentice A. Breast feeding and the older infant. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl. 1991 ;374:78-88.

3.             Haug A, Christophersen OA, Hostmark AT, Harstad OM. [Milk and health]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen.

2007; 127(19):2542-2545.

4.             Lopez Alvarez MJ. Proteins in human milk. Breastfeed Rev. 2007; 15( I ):5-16.

5.             Wang B Fau - Downing JA, Downing Ja Fau - Petocz P, Petocz P Fau - Brand-Miller J, Brand-Miller J Fau - Bryden WL, Bryden WL. Metabolic fate of intravenously administered N-acetylneuraminic acid-6-14C in newborn piglets. (0964-7058 (print».

6.             Innis SM. Fatty acids and early human development. Early Hum Dev. 2007;83(12):761-766.

7.             Innis SM. Human milk: maternal dietary lipids and infant development. Proc Nmr Soc.

                2007;66(3):397-404.

8.             Prentice A, Lebenthals E. Lipids in human milk-composition and fat-soluble vitamins. Textbook of

                gastroenterology and utrition in infancy. Vol 2nd. New York: Raven Press; 1989: 157-208.

9.             Lonnerdal B. Human milk proteins: key components for the biological activity of human milk. Adv.Exp

                Med Bioi. 2004;554:11-25.                                                                                      .

10.          Bates CJ, Prentice A. Breast milk as a source of vitamins, essential minerals and trace elements.

                Pharmacol Ther. 1994;62(1-2): 193-220.

11.          Harzer G, Haschke F, Renners E. Micronutrients in human milk. Micronutrients in milk and milk-based food products. London: Elsevier; 1989:125-238.

12.          Jenness R. The composition of human milk. Semin Perinatol. 1979;3(3):225-239.

13.          National Academy of S. Nutrition During Lactation. Washington DC: National Academy of Science

                Press; 1991.

14.          Parvez S, Malik KA, Ah KS, Kim HY. Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for

                health. J Applied Microbiol. 2006; 1 00(6): 1171-1185.

IS.           Shahani KM, Chandan RC. Nutritional and healthful aspects of cultured and culture-containing dairy

                foods. J Dairy Sci. 1979;62( 10): 1685-1694.

16.          Clemens K, Silvia R. Physiology of oligosaccharides in lactating women and breast fed infants. Adv Exp

                Med BioI. 2000;478:241-250.

17.          Gudiel-Urbano M, Goni I. [Human milk oligosaccharides. The rule in the health and development of the infants]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2001;51(4):332-339.

18.          Coppa GV, Pierani P, Zampini L, et al. Lactose, oligosaccharide and monosaccharide content of milk trom mothers delivering preterm newborns over the first month of lactation. Minerva Pediatr.

                1997;49(10):471-475.

19.          Wang B, Brand-Miller J. The role and potential of sialic acid in human nutrition. EurJ Clin Nutr.

                2003;57(11): 1351-1369.

20.          Wang B, McVeagh P, Petocz P, Brand-Miller J. Brain ganglioside and glycoprotein sialic acid in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(5): 1024-1029.

21.          Tram TH, Brand Miller JC, McNeil Y, McVeagh P. Sialic acid content of infant saliva: comparison of

                breast fed with formula fed infants. Arch Dis Child. 1997;77(4):315-318.

22.          Mortensen EL, Michaelsen KF, Sanders SA, Reinisch 1M. The association between duration of

                breastfeeding and adult intelligence. JAMA. 2002;287(18):2365-2371.

23.          Rodgers B. Feeding in infancy and later ability and attainment: a longitudinal study. Dev Med Child

                Neurol. 1978;20(4):421-426.

24.          Fergusson DM, Beautrais AL, Silva PA. Breast-feeding and cognitive development in the first seven years of Iife. Soc Sci Med. 1982;16(19):1705-1708.

25.          Lucas A, Morley R, Cole n, Lister G, Leeson-Payne C. Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. Lancet. 1992;339(8788):261-264.

26.          Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen-Rivers LA. Differences in morbidity between breast-fed and

                formula-fed infants. J Pediatr. 1995; 126(5 Pt 1):696-702.

27.          Horwood U, Fergusson DM. Breastfeeding and later cognitive and academic outcomes. Pediatrics.

                1998;101(1):E9.

28.          Slusser W, Powers NG. Breastfeeding update I: immunology, nutrition, and advocacy. Pediatr Rev.

                1997;18(4): 111-119.

29.          McVeagh P, Miller JB. Human milk oligosaccharides: only the breast. J Paediatr Child Health.

                1997;33(4):281-286.

30.          Martin-Sosa S, Martin MJ, Garcia-Pardo LA, Hueso P. Sialyloligosaccharides in human and bovine milk and in infant formulas: variations with the progression of lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86(1):52-59.

31.          Mata L. Breastfeeding and host defense. Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research. 1986;13:119-133.

32.          Teng CC, Tjoa S, Fennessey PV, Wilkening RB, Battaglia Fe. Transplacental carbohydrate and sugar alcohol concentrations and their uptakes in ovine pregnancy. up Bioi ,\fed (Maywood.).

2002;227(3): 189-195.

33.          Brusati V, Jozwik M, Teng C, Paolini C, Marconi A..'vl. Battaglia Fe. Fetal and maternal non-glucose carbohydrates and polyols concentrations in normal human pregnancies at term. Pediatr Res. 2005;58(4):700-704.

34.          Cavalli C, Teng C, Battaglia FC, Bevilacqua G. Free sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations in human breast milk. J Pediatr Gastraenteral Nutr. 2006;42(2):215-22L

35.          Panneerselvam K, Freeze HH. Mannose corrects altered :\-glycosylarion in carbohydrate-deficient

                glycoprotein syndrome fibroblasts. J Clin Invest. 1996:9"'161:1';"'8-14,<;-,

36.       Crisp EA, Czolij R, Messer M. Absence of beta-galactOSidase IJacrase'l acri\;ty from intestinal brush borders of suckling macropods: implications for mechanism of\actose absoIption. Camp Biochem Physiol B. 1987;88(3):923-927.

37.          Alton G, Hasilik M, Niehues R, et al. Direct uri1izatjoo ofmannose for mammalian glycoprotein

                biosynthesis. Glycobiology. 1998;8(3):285-295.

38.          Haltiwanger RS, Lowe 18. Role of glycosylarion m de\clopmeDL .{om:. Reo. Biochem. 2004;73:491-537.

 

------

Chapter 8

 

 

 

Obtaining Monosaccharides from Human Milk Oligosaccharides 

(HMOs): Prototype for Acemannon

 

Abstract:

 

In the past, scientists thought that because humans did not make enzymes to digest HMOs, breast milk did not provide a significant source of monosaccharides. How­ever, during birth and shortly thereafter, the infant's gastrointestinal tract acquires probiotics from the mother and the surrounding environment.  These probiotics are able to produce the enzymes that can break down HMOs and provide the monosac­charides needed for optimal health. HMOs and monosaccharides are absorbed into the blood providing a wide range of beneficial effects, which include immunomodu­lation, optimal development, and disease prevention.

 

Probiotics

 

The inability of humans to break beta bonds, except for lactose, is compensated by probiotics present in the intestine. These bacteria slowly digest a small percentage of beta-linked oligo- and polysaccharides in the small intestine. This slowly provides monosaccharides in the ileum where they are known to be absorbed into the blood.  Unlike humans, these friendly bacteria are able to produce many enzymes that allow them to break the beta bonds and feed themselves, and at the same time provide their human host with monosaccharides for absorption. This proposes a symbiotic rela­tionship between humans and bacteria, where both benefit from the breakdown of HMOs. 1-6

 

There are approximately 1014 microorganisms in our gut comprising nearly 400 dif­ferent species? This is 10 times the total number of cells that make up the average human body. Another way to look at this is that each cell in the human body has ten bacteria in the intestine working for it.

 

The Importance of Probiotics:

 

These friendly bacteria play key roles in metabolism, immune system stimulation and regulation, and the memory mechanisms of systemic immunity.2 Other important functions include vitamin synthesis and the absorption of calcium, magnesium, and iron. Additionally, a large number of probiotics can form a protective barrier that serves to prevent invasion by pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and viruses that may cause damage to the human host.

 

Paul Gyorgy was the first to report that a mixture of HMOs promoted the growth and reproduction of the probiotic, Bifidobacterium bifidum.8, 9 Several investigators have since confirmed these initial findings.6, 10 One of the most important bacterial genera involved in breaking beta-linked HMOs is Bacteroides.11-14 Bacteroides thetaio­taomicron can produce over 172 enzymes that digest HMOs or polysaccharides into monosaccharides. 15 Several species have been shown to be present in the newborn's intestine as early as 10 days after birth.13 It is no coincidence that the region of the intestine where the bacteria are found also contains special pumps that absorb these monosaccharides and move them into the blood.

 

Acquiring and Maintaining the Proper Probiotics:

 

At birth, the GI tract is sterile. 12, 16 Birth provides several opportunities for infants to acquire a diversity of friendly bacteria in their intestines. When the infant passes through the birth canal, it receives its first dose of friendly bacteria. Newborns can obtain these probiotics directly from the mother and their environment.  Some sources of these bacteria include: "unsanitary environment" at birth, suckling, human breast milk and transfer from foreign objects.7 Once in the GI tract, the bacteria are fed and maintained with HMOs, thus explaining why these saccharides are the third most abundant component in mother's milk.

 

Studies illustrate that socioeconomic factors can influence the variety of bacteria that colonize the intestine. Industrialized nations are more prone to deliver newborns through cesarean section in a sterile environment, use greater amounts of antibiotics, and formula-feed their infants.7 All of these actions can prevent beneficial organisms from colonizing the intestines. Alternatively, in non-industrialized nations, vaginal delivery, breast-feeding, and limited use of antibiotics provides newborns with a healthy culture of friendly bacteria. Thus, the environment and practices in develop­ing nations is more conducive to building a more diverse colony of beneficial bacte­ria which can produce enzymes to break the various beta-bonds in HMOs.7 Maybe it is true that modem societies are too clean to be healthy.

 

Various researchers have compared the differences of beneficial bacteria in newborns between industrialized and developing countries. They have come to the conclusion that newborns in industrialized nations tend to establish less diverse probiotic colo­nies. The repercussions of this could lead to a decreased ability of these children to digest HMOs and thus reduce their immune protection.7  Furthermore, it is found that these problems can be exacerbated as a result of formula feeding. The impor­tance of breast-feeding and proper digestion of HMOs in infants cannot be overem­phasized.

 

The oligosaccharides in breast milk feed and maintain a health culture of friendly bacteria until the infant stops nursing, at which time health sources of these saccharides must be obtained from their diet.  Modern food preservation and the use of antibiotics cause the destruction of these probiotics, leading to poor digestion and absorption of important nutrients, and eventual malnutrition.

 

Structural Benefits of HMOs and Their Functions: lmmunomodulatory

 

HMOs have been shown to concentrate in the kidneys where they prevent urinary tract infections in infants.17 Breast feeding has also been linked to a decrease in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and inflammatory diseases in infants.18  In addition, HMOs decrease the activity of inflammatory immune cells like neutrophils and leukocytes at sites of inflammation. It has been  proposed that this beneficial ef­fect stems from the immunomodulating properties of HMOs.

 

Developmental

Studies have linked breast-feeding to improved neural development.17 It is believed that breast feeding provides extra galactose, which is necessary for the production of galactosylceramide, the main glycolipid in myelin. HMOs provide sialic acid, a ma­jor component of brain glycoproteins and gangliosides.19 Although infants are capa­ble of synthesizing sialic acid, it is thought that oral supplementation facilitates the very rapid brain development which occurs in the first few weeks of life.20

 

Table 10: Human Milk Oligosaccharide Composition21

.

Monosaccharide

Sialic acid            

N-acetylglucosamine

Fucos

Concentration  - Week 1 Post-Partum

879 ppm

1459 ppm

660 ppm

Concentration - Week 13 Post-Partum

256 ppm

646 ppm

432 ppm

                                                                         

Table 10 demonstrates sialic acid content in breast milk of mothers with full-term infants is higher immediately after birth than at week 13 post-partum, which corre­lates with the period of most rapid brain development after birth. Additionally, moth­ers with pre-term infants have a much higher amount of sialic acid (and additional oligosaccharides) in their milk corresponding to the infant's increased need.21 The incorporation of these oligosaccharide components by nervous tissue provides evi­dence that HMOs are absorbed into the systemic circulation. 17

 

Disease Prevention

 

Research has shown that breast-feeding decreases the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), autoimmune thyroid disease, celiac disease, diabetes, obe­sity, atopic dermatitis, allergies and other infections that occur later in life.22-25 The ingested HMOs also work to prevent and combat diseases like enteric disease, otitis media, respiratory infections and other diseases caused by pathogens. This process is accomplished by HMOs and similar molecules, which can act as receptor site decoys that prevent pathogen adherence.19 In this same manner, HMOs are believed to play a key role in inhibiting mother-to-child transmission of HIV.9

 

Absorption of Monosaccharides and HMOs:

 

The body obtains monosaccharides with the aid of probiotics throughout life. The main monosaccharides found in HMOs are D-glucose (Glc), D-galactose (Gal), N­acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), L-fucose (Fuc), N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, also known as sialic acid),9 and D-mannose.26 This accounts for six of the eight principal monosaccharides needed to form the various glycoproteins and glycolipids. The other two major monosaccharides (i.e. N-acetylglucosamine and acetylgalactosamine) can be easily produced from glucose, the most abundant mono­saccharide found in the blood. In N-linked glycoproteins, the naming and classifica­tion depends on the amount of mannose that is present in these molecules. This demonstrates the importance of mannose in building glycoproteins with proper struc­ture and function. Furthermore, blood and serum concentrations of mannose in in­fants and adults are fairly constant, which shows that mannose is important through­out life. Mannose is present in mother's milk in large quantities as a monosaccharide and in HMOs. This provides a constant supply of mannose in a time-released man­ner, which can be absorbed through mannose-specific pumps in the intestine.27

 

Evidence for the utilization of monosaccharides found in HMOs is seen in studies demonstrating HMOs in the urine of breast-fed infants but not in the urine of formula-fed infants.17 Other studies indicated that sialic acid oligosaccharide con­tent is 9 times higher in the urine and 62 times higher in the feces.19  Further evi­dence comes from studies when 13C labeled galacrose is given orally to lactating women. Kunz et al. discovered that part of the orally administered 13C galactose was directly incorporated into milk lactose and HMOs, and later found in the infant's urine. They concluded that monosaccharides from HMOs and intact HMOs are ab­sorbed from the infant's GI tract into the blood.

Summary

Shortly after birth, infants obtain probiotics from their mothers and their environment. Initially, these bacteria are nourished with small bata-linked HMOs from mother's milk. These bacteria and HMOs (i.e. probiotics) provide a broad range of health benefits to infants, which includes providing the necessary monosaccharides required for structural and functional glycoproteins and glycolipids. When the infant stops nursing, probiotics are fed and maintained with other complex saccharides naturally found in their food.

 

  References

1.            Espinosa RM, Tamez M, Prieto P. Efforts to emulate human milk oligosaccharides. Br J Nutr. 2007;98 Suppll:S74-S79.

2.            Guamer F, Malagelada JR. Gut flora in health and disease. Lancet. 2003:361(9356):512-519.

3.            Hijova E, Chmelarova A. Short chain fatty acids and colonic health. Bratisl Lek Listy.

                2007; I 08(8):354-358.

4.            Lin DC. Probiotics as functional foods. Nutr Clin Pract 2003:1846,:49'-506.

5.            Niers L, Stasse-Wolthuis M, Rombouts FM, Rijkers GT. ~utritiooal support for the infant's immune

                system. Nutr Rev. 2007;65(8 Pt 1):347-360.

6.            Parracho H, McCartney AL, Gibson GR. Probiotics and prebiorics in infant nutrition. Proc Nutr Soc.

                2007;66(3):405-411.

7.            Campeotto F, Waligora-Dupriet AJ, Doucet-Populaire F. KaIach~. Dupont C. Butel MJ. [Establishment of the intestinal micro flora in neonates]. Gastroenterol Clin BioI. 2007:31 (5):533-542.

8.            Gyorgy P, Norris RF, Rose CS. Bitidus factor. I. A variant ofl..actobacillus bitidus requiring a special

                growth factor. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1954;48( I): 193-2f';

9.            Bode L. Recent advances in structure, metabolism, and function of human milk oligosaccharides. J Nutr 2006; 136(8):2127-2130.

10.          Ward RE, Ninonuevo M, Mills DA, Lebrilla CB. German JB. In viuo fermentability of human milk

                oligosaccharides by several strains of bitidobacteria. Mol Sutr Food Res. 2007;51(11):1398-1405.

11.          Evaldson G, Heimdahl A, Kager L, Nord CEo The normal human anaerobic microflora. Scand J    Infect Dis Suppl. 1982;35:9-15.                .

12.          Fanaro S, Chierici R, Guerrini P, Vigi V. Intestinal microfiora in ~ infancy: composition and

development. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2003;91(441 ):48-55.

13          . Wexler HM. Bacteroides: the good, the bad, and the nilly-gritty. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;20(4):593-621.

14          . Xu J, Gordon n. Inaugural Article: Honor thy symbionts. Proceedings of the .Vational Academy of Sciences of the USA. 2003; 100(18): 10452-10459.

15.          Comstock LE, Coyne MJ. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron: a dynamic. nicbe-adapted human symbiont.Bioessays.2003;25(10):926-929.

16          . Fitzgerald JF. Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. .\lead Ja"mon s".."p Perinat Dev Med. 1977( II ):35-38.

17.         Kunz C, Rudloff S, Baier W, Klein N, Strobel S. Oligosaccharides in human milk: structural, functional, and metabolic aspects. Annu Rev Nutr. 2000;20:699-"'12.

18.         Kosloske AM. Breast milk decreases the risk of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Adv Nutr Res. 2001 ;10: 123-137.

19.          Ogier-Denis E, Blais A, Houri JJ, Voisin T, Trugnan G. Codogno P. The emergence of a basolateral

I-deoxymannojirimycin-sensitive mannose carrier is a function of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. Evidence for a new inhibitory effect of l-deoxymannojirimycin on facilitative mannose transport. J BioI Chem. 1994;269(6):4285-4290.

20.          Colombo JP, Garcia-Rodenas C, Guesry PR, Rey J. Potential effects of supplementation with amino acids,

choline or sialic acid on cognitive development in young infants. Acta Paediatr.Suppl. 2003;92(442):42-46.

21.          Miller JB, Bull S, Miller J, McVeagh P. The oligosaccharide composition of human milk: temporal and           individual variations in monosaccharide components. J Pediatr Gastroenterol.Nutr. 1994; 19(4):371-376.

22.          Schack-Nielsen L, Michaelsen KF. Breast feeding and future health. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006;9(3):289-296.

23.          Home RS, Parslow PM, Ferens D, Watts AM, Adamson TM. Comparison of evoked arousability in breast and formula fed infants. Arch Dis Child. 2004;89(1):22-25.

24.          Kramer MS, Matush L, Vanilovich I, et al. Effects of prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding on child

height, weight, adiposity,and blood pressure at age 6.5 y: evidence from a large randomized trial. Am JCfinNutr. 2007;86(6):1717-1721.

25.          Kramer MS, Aboud F, Mironova E, et al. Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: new evidence /Tom a large randomized trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(5):578-584.

26.          Cavalli C, Teng C, Battaglia FC, Bevilacqua G. Free sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations in human breast milk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006;42(2):215-221.

27.          Alton G, Hasilik M, Niehues R, et al. Direct utilization of mannose for mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis. Glycobiology. 1998;8(3):285-295.

 

------

Chapter 6

 

 

Aloe as a Source of Mannose

 

Abstract:

Carbohydrates have been historically deemed as the least important of the core nutri­tion groups (i.e. proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates). In the last few years, however, science has recognized that the body communicates with saccharide-modified pro­teins, called glycoproteins. This system provides the unlimited coding capacity, which allows the ability to regulate and balance cellular function. Of the more than 200 naturally occurring monosaccharides, eleven are commonly found in glycopro­teins needed for proper cellular communication and function.1 Furthermore, eight of the eleven are found in most glycoproteins and glycolipids.  Mannose is so important that a whole class of glycoproteins is classified by the amount of mannose they con­tain. Aloe is one of the few plants in nature that are rich in mannose.

Essential Nutrients

The idea of an essential nutrient is based on the fact that humans cannot make all the nutrients (i.e. biomolecules) necessary to function properly.  Therefore, it is "essential" that some nutrients be obtained through the diet.  For example, research has dis­covered that 20 amino acids and eight physiologically relevant lipids are required for optimal health. All human proteins are assembled from 20 amino acids, of which 10 must be obtained from the diet. These essential amino acids are arginine, histidine, methionine, threonine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, leucine, and lysine.1 There are also two classes of fatty acids which must be obtained from the diet, omega-3 and omega-6.2  However, investigators had never really explored the idea of essential monosaccharides.  Research is beginning to reveal that, just like fatty acids and amino acids, humans may also require specific dietary monosaccha­rides to maintain proper structure and function to promote optimal health.3 There are more than 200 naturally occurring monosaccharides. Among them, eight are known to be used by humans to assemble small glycans (sugar chains) that may be attached to proteins or lipids, producing glycoproteins or glycolipids. These molecules can be expressed on the cell surface or released by the cell in order to con­trol and regulate proper cellular communication, and thus function. Table 7 lists the eight principal monosaccharides used to make glycoconjugates.  

 

Table 7: Principal Monosaccharides

Glucose

Galactose

Mannose

Fucose

Xylose

N-acetylgalactosamine

N-acetylglucosamine

N-acetylneuraminic acid

 

Why We Need Monosaccharides From the Diet?

 

Monosaccharides can be obtained through the chemical modification of glucose by various enzymes in the liver. As a result, it has been assumed that all the monosac­charides in the body are derived from glucose. However, recent evidence has shown that this may not be the case for mannose. Receptors and transporters for other monosaccharides, such as mannose, have been found in rat small intestine and colon epithelial cells. They serve to actively move mannose from the diet.4  Once mannose is absorbed from food, receptors and transporters on cells like macrophages and fi­broblasts have shown specificity for mannose, even in the presence of 50-100 times higher glucose concentrations.5 Recent studies also demonstrate that humans are able to actively absorb mannose from the diet (i.e. mother's milk) at an early age.6  In summary, even though the body can obtain the essential monosaccharides through the conversion of glucose, new evidence has established the importance of dietary sources of mannose.

 

The importance of Mannose in Cellular Communication

 

Mannose is so important in cellular communication that several cells have been found to express active pumps, which are able to selectively move mannose from extracellular fluids into the interior of the cell'? 8 These pumps are able to move mannose monosaccharides and oligosaccharides. Once mannose is present in the intracellular fluid, it is used to produce N-linked glycoproteins, which are classified by their mannose content. Mannose is responsible for forming the proper structure, and thus function, of these glycoproteins. Aloe is a rich source of mannose, which is rare in the modem, Western diet. Therefore, its nutritional value must not be under­estimated and its important health benefits overlooked.

 

Summary

 

Monosaccharides are important for healthy bodily functions. Special pumps are lo­cated on the intestinal wall to extract mannose from food. Additional cellular pumps move mannose into cells to build structurally functional glycoproteins. There are two classes of glycoproteins, N-linked and O-linked, which are used in cellular communi­cation. N-linked glycoproteins require mannose and are classified by their mannose content. Aloe is one of the few plants rich in mannose. thus accounting for its nutri­tional value and many of its health benefits.

 

 

 

References

 

I.              Massey KA, Blakeslee CH, Pitkow HS. A review of physiological and metabolic effects of essential

amino acids. Amino Acids. 1998;14(4):271-300.

2.            Lands WE. Biochemistry and physiology of n-3 fatty acids. FASEB 1. 1992;6(8):2530-2536.

3.            Varki A, Cummings R, Esko J. Essentials of Glycobiology: CSHL Press; 2002.

4.            Ogier-Denis E, Blais A, Houri n, et al. The emergence of a basolaterall-deoxymannojirimycin- sensitive

mannose carrier is a function of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. Evidence for a new inhibitory effect of I-deoxymannojirimycin on facilitative mannose transport. J BioI Chern. 1994;269(6):4285-4290.

5.            Alton G, Hasilik M, Niehues R, et al. Direct utilization of man nose for mammalian glycoprotein

                biosynthesis. Glycobiology. 1998;8(3):285-295.

6.            Cavalli C, Teng C, Battaglia FC, Bevilacqua G. Free sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations in human breast milk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006;42(2):215-221.

7.            Panneerselvam K, Freeze HH. Mannose enters mammalian cells using a specific transporter that is

                insensitive to glucose. J BioI Chern. 1996;271 (16):9417-9421.

8.            Panneerselvam K, Freeze HH. Mannose corrects altered N-glycosylation in carbohydrate-deficient

                glycoprotein syndrome fibroblasts. J Clin Invest. 1996;97(6): 1478-1487.  

------

.

Drs. Bill McAnalley and Reg McDaniel

The Resurrection of Jesus was for the redemption or rebirth of man.  To restore the BODY, MIND AND SPIRIT we were blessed with at birth.  The mechanisms for a cure to restore "NORMAL" life functions are built into each and everyone of us.  We just need to give our bodies the necessary parts for the cells to do their jobs as a micro-manufacturing facility.

.

WHAT IS THE FIRST FOOD GIVEN TO A NEWBORN?

Here is a link to a video called "MILK" and a recent email from Dr. Reg:

John,

Aloe polymannose is not the alpha and omega for the restitution of the human body to normal health and a high quality of life. I do regard it metaphorically as the alpha.

I should add, this is not a treatment or cure. JUST RESTORED NUTRITION IN THE MODERN FOOD CHAIN. The supplement ingredients do nothing.  They are just natural molecular parts to be used on the assembly in each cell operating naturally under control of the genes to seek the “normal zone” bio-chemically and physiologically by synthesizing bioactive molecules, all as designed and engineered in nature through the power and intelligence of the Great Architect of the universe. THIS IS NOT A NEW IDEA but a key point to establish and since it is SAFE beyond compare, EFFECTIVE to the extreme and ECONOMICAL to the extent the sickness industry and BIG PHARMA regard this technology as a declaration of war on their exploitive profits and financial rape of society.

Serving,

Dr Reg

 

Chapter 4